CCTV aka closed circuit television or video surveillance is like a television system but the only difference is that broadcasting of video signals is limited to fewer monitors. Though all video cameras are limited to a set number of screens but CCTV is mainly used for surveillance or security purposes like in public places, banks, shopping malls, etc. It uses links like point to point or point to multipoint link, or meshed wire or wireless links which make its broadcasting limited that’s why it got the name closed circuit.
Camera surveillance of surrounding has become common these days and also regarded the best medium to keep an eye on everyone. But it has also started a debate on individual’s right to privacy. The first CCTV was installed by Siemen AG, at test stand VII in Peenemunde, in Nazi Germany 1942 to observe the launch of V2 rockets.
Earlier due to the lack of storage for saving the records and information gathered by CCTV and it required to sit in front of a monitor constantly. In those system magnetic tapes were used, to be changed manually from tape reel to empty take-up reel which was expensive, time consuming and unreliable because of this camera surveillance did not get the fame. After the advent of VCR technology it became easy to record and erase videos. Multiplexing was also developed which allowed several cameras to record at once.
Applications of CCTv Cameras:
Used in industrial plants, when the environment is not suitable for humans to observe the processing like in chemical industries or nuclear industries. These days special cameras like line scan cameras or thermo graphic cameras are used which also measures temperature.
It is helpful to prevent crimes like theft, burglary and also sometime to caught the culprit. According to a data crimes reduced on an average of 16% due to the use of CCTV. These days new body worn video cameras are used by police officials on their chest and head.
Traffic monitoring is done with the help of CCTv these days to detect congestions, caught defaulters and notice accidents on roads.
Other than these camera surveillance is used in schools, sports events, offices and for home security.